The 1980s, pronounced "the Eighties", was the decade that started on January 1, 1980 and ended on December 31, 1989. It was the ninth decade of the 20th century. The time period saw social, economic and general change as wealth and production migrated to newly industrializing economies. As economic liberalization increased in the developed world, multiple multinational corporations associated with the manufacturing industry relocated into Thailand, Malaysia, Mexico, South Korea, Taiwan, China, and new market economies in Eastern Europe following the collapse of communism in eastern Europe. Japan and West Germany are the most notable developed countries that continued to enjoy rapid economic growth during the decade whilst other western nations, particularly the United States and United Kingdom re-adopted laissez-faire economic policies. Developing countries across the world faced economic and social difficulties as they suffered from multiple debt crises in the 1980s, requiring many of these countries to apply for financial assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.
The importance of external sector to Malaysian economy means that changes in the terms of trade is one of the main sources of macroeconomic instability to the country. Utilizing the 1-2-3 Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model, this study examines the impact of terms of trade shocks on Malaysian economy. This study shows that even though Malaysia is industrializing, its terms of trade is subject to deterioration. Simulations for the model shows that terms of trade deterioration affects key macroeconomic variables negatively, reducing welfare. To lessen the negative impact of terms of trade shock in the short run, the study proposes a reduction in indirect tax instead of subsidy. In the long run, Malaysia needs to diversify its exports and shifts into technological intensive product. In addition, there should be strong linkage between domestic-oriented sector and export-oriented industries to improve the value added of the exports.
The context for this book is the resurgence of the debate between income and environmental degradation and a step towards better-informed debate on growth- environment interface. This book presents empirical investigations on the interacting relationship between income and environmental degradation, and tended to prove the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis based on Malaysian case. Generally, industrializing phase in most countries is accompanied by worsening of environmental quality along the dimensions of air pollution, water pollution and resource depletion. We investigate how economic growth in Malaysia is contributing to environmental pollution in the country. Our results present an EKC type relationship between several pollutants and total real GDP which has additional contribution to environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis.
This book is highly topical. The shift from the multilateral WTO negotiations to bilateral and regional Free Trade Agreements has been going on for some time, but it is bound to accelerate after the WTO Doha round of negotiations is now widely regarded as a failure. However, there is a particular regional angle to this topic as well. After concluding that further progress in the Doha round was unlikely, Pacific Rim nations recently have progressed with the negotiations of a greatly expanded Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement that includes industrialised economies and developed countries such as the United States, Japan, Australia and New Zealand, recently emerged economies such as Singapore, but also several developing countries in Asia and Latin America such as Malaysia and Vietnam. US and EU led efforts to conclude FTAs with Asia-Pacific nations are also bound to accelerate again, after a temporary slowdown in the negotiations following the change of government in the United States and the expiry of the US President's fast-track negotiation authority. The book will provide an assessment of these dynamics in the world's fastest growing region. It will look at the IP chapters from a legal perspective, but also put the developments into a socio-economic and political context. Many agreements in fact are concluded because of this context rather than for purely economic reasons or to achieve progress in fields like IP law. The structure of the book follows an outline that groups countries into interest alliances according to their respective IP priorities. This ranges from the driving forces of the EU, US and Japan, via Asia-Pacific resource-rich but IP poor economies such as Australia and New Zealand, recently emerged economies with strong IP systems such as Singapore and Korea to leading developing countries such as China and India and 'second tier industrializing economies' such as Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia.
The export trade in electricals and electronics (E&E) has played a key role in industrializing the Malaysian economy. However, it cannot insulate itself against influences from the external sector such as the emergence of new competitors in the region and the slowdown of the U.S. economy, which represents one of the largest E&E export markets for Malaysia. The study attempts to explain what determines foreign demand (final and intermediate) for Malaysia's E&E exports based on SITC product groups in the short run and long run. It focuses upon an economic comparison between the electronic and electrical goods sub-sectors given their exports are highly diverse. The findings can shed light on issues relating to the future of the industry's export competitiveness, which can lead the economy's transition towards high-technology industrialization.
Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2003 im Fachbereich Geowissenschaften / Geographie - Wirtschaftsgeographie, Note: 1,3, Universität Hamburg (Geographisches Institut), Veranstaltung: Südostasien, 36 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Die Region Südostasien und Ostasien hat in der zweiten Hälfte letzten Jahrhunderts einen sozioökonomischen Wandel geschafft, der es erlaubt, durchaus von einem neuen Gravitationszentrum der Weltwirtschaft zu reden. Drei Viertel des weltwirtschaftlichen Zuwachses entfielen in den neunziger Jahren auf diese Region mit ihren Staaten, unter denen einige Regionen oft als die 'vier kleinen Tiger' (Hongkong, Taiwan, Südkorea, Singapur) hervorgehoben werden. Aber es sind längst nicht nur diese Wirtschaftsräume, die einen musterartigen Prozess der aufholenden Industrialisierung geschafft haben. Auch Malaysia hat sich durch beträchtiges wirtschaftliches Wachstum ausgezeichnet und gilt hinter Singapur als das am zweitweitesten entwickelte Land Südostasiens. In den Jahren 1988 - 1995 erreichte die Wirtschaft Malaysias ein Wachstum von 8% (vgl. Chowdury, A.; Islam, I. 1996, S.222). Für diese Entwicklung sprechen neben den ökonomischen auch nichtmonetäre Indikatoren (vgl. Vennewald, W. 1996, S. 152). Als Mitglied der ASEAN ist das Land heute ein äusserst ernstzunehmender Konkurrent zu anderen Newly Industrializing Countries (NICs). Im Folgenden soll der wirtschaftliche Strukturwandel in der zweiten Hälfte des vergangenen Jahrhunderts erläutert werden, sowie ein Blick auf die aktuelle Entwicklungsplanung geworfen werden. Unter dem Titel 'Vision 2020' hat sich das Land zum Ziel gemacht, zum vollwertigen Industrieland aufzusteigen. Teil dieses Planes ist der 'Multimedia Superior Corridor', der optimale Standortqualitäten für neue Industrien bieten soll. Des Weiteren soll ein Blick auf aktuelle Kennziffern einen Überblick über die allgemeine Entwicklung und im Vergleich zu anderen Ländern geben, sowie auf die Unterschiede der einzelnen Regionen. Leider beschränkt sich die gesamte Analyse grösstenteils auf West-Malaysia, da die Insel Borneo sowohl vom Staat als auch von der Wissenschaft vernachlässigt wurde bisher. Aufgrund seiner Ausstattung mit natürlichen Ressourcen entwickelte sich Malaysia schon unter der britischen Kolonialherrschaft zu einem weltwirtschaftlichen Produzenten von Zinnerz und Kautschuk. Ausserdem schufen die Kolonialherrscher ein gutes Rechtssystem, sowie ein effizientes Verwaltungsgefüge im Lande. Doch die koloniale Phase hatte auch negative Auswirkungen. Die Produktpalette der Halbinsel war wenig differenziert und unterlag den Nachfragemärkten von Nordamerika und Europa.
Diploma Thesis from the year 2010 in the subject Economics - Foreign Trade Theory, Trade Policy, grade: 1,0, University of Osnabrück (Fachbereich für Aussenwirtschaft), language: English, abstract: After the successful experience of newly industrializing countries in East Asia (e.g., the East Asian Tigers: Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan) in the 1960s and Southeast Asia (e.g., the Southeast Asian Little-Tigers: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand) by the late 1970s, trade liberalization (TL) in less developed countries (LDCs) has been considered as a policy to achieve rapid economic development. The argu-ment, put forward for instance by Dollar et al. [2002, p.195], that ¿TL is good for [economic] growth¿ and that ¿[economic] growth, [in turn], is good for the poor¿ has since served as the departure point for the discussion of the link between TL and poverty among economists, researchers, and policymakers alike. Spurred on by the dramatic failure of import substitution industrialization (ISI) strategies, and with the advice and support from international financial institutions (IFIs), such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), Krueger [1998, p.1521], for instance, finds that the intervening period has seen a large wave of TL episodes in countries in Latin America, Middle- and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia respectively. Believing that TL is vital for economic growth and poverty alleviation, these nations have frequently and extensively used it as a centerpiece for their development strategy. Howev-er, the high expectations held at the times those countries embarked on their trade policy reforms (TPRs) have not always been fulfilled in retrospect.
I. Introduction. The new industrial revolution in Asian economies (M. Abidin, R. Hooley). II. Macroeconomic Policy and productivity Performance. Reflections on economic growth in Asia and the Pacific (A. Harberger). The new industrial revolution in Asian economies: its limits (M. Dutta). Miracle or myth in Asian NIC growth: the irony of numbers (F. Hsaio, M. Hsaio). The role of Korea in Asia Pacific economic cooperation with special reference to strategic alliances (Y.T. Lim). Inflation and exchange rate management in Indonesia (R. Sirigar). Explaining Malaysia's economic growth (W.B. Gan, L.Y. Soon). III. Liberalization of Trade in Services. Implications of GATS on the service sector: Malaysian perspectives (S. Ling, M. Abidin and L. Heng). Thailand's liberalization of trade and investment in services within APEC (C. Suthiphand). Services and development in an open economy (N. Mehta). Effects of interest rate liberalization: the case of S. Korea (S. Kwack, C. Lee). IV. Foreign Investment. The role of foreign investment in the success of Asian industrialization (P. Lloyd). Foreign direct investment and economic growth (K. Marwah, L. Klein). AFTA, AIA and U.S. direct investment in ASEAN (R. McCullough, M. Plummer). Sources of technology inflow to malaysia: U.S. firms vs, Japanese firms (S. Narayanan, L.Y. Wah). Trade, investment and conflict between the U.S. and Asia (M. Noland). V. Sectoral and Institutional Change. Agriculture in the new Asian industrialization (R. Bautista, D. DeRosa). Investment in human capital in South Asian economies (S. Khan). Business groups in Japan, Korea and Taiwan: a comparison (J. Liu, J. Choi and H. Wang). The Japanese employment practice revisited (M. Ahmed). The myth of the effect of industrial policies in industrializing countries: the case of Taiwan (T.S. Yu). China's choice for the industrialization road: China's township and village enterprises (H. Fanzhang). On the relationship between Vietnam's economic renovation and its possible participation in regional and world economic organizations (D.L. Diep). Burmese seaman in search of freedom from poverty: a study of the effects of foreign exchange controls and economic mismanagement (M. Maung).